Jetsonen E, Didio G, Winkel F, Llach Pou M, Boj C, Kuczynski-Noyau L, Võikar V, Guirado R, Taira T, Lauri SE, Castrén E, Umemori J (2023) Activation of TrkB in Parvalbumin interneurons is required for the promotion of reversal learning in spatial and fear memory by antidepressants. Neuropsychopharmacology 48: 1021-1030.

Critical period-like plasticity (iPlasticity) can be reinstated in the adult brain by several interventions, including drugs and optogenetic modifications. We have demonstrated that a combination of iPlasticity with optimal training improves behaviors related to neuropsychiatric disorders. In this context, the activation of TrkB, a receptor for BDNF, in Parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons has a pivotal role in cortical network changes. However, it is unknown if the activation of TrkB in PV+ interneurons is important for other plasticity-related behaviors, especially for learning and memory. Here, using mice with heterozygous conditional TrkB deletion in PV+ interneurons (PV-TrkB hCKO) in IntelliCage and fear erasure paradigms, we show that chronic treatment with fluoxetine, a widely prescribed antidepressant drug that is known to promote the activation of TrkB, enhances behavioral flexibility in spatial and fear memory, largely depending on the expression of the TrkB receptor in PV+ interneurons. In addition, hippocampal long-term potentiation was enhanced by chronic treatment with fluoxetine in wild-type mice, but not in PV-TrkB hCKO mice. Transcriptomic analysis of PV+ interneurons after fluoxetine treatment indicated intrinsic changes in synaptic formation and downregulation of enzymes involved in perineuronal net formation. Consistently, immunohistochemistry has shown that the fluoxetine treatment alters PV expression and reduces PNNs in PV+ interneurons, and here we show that TrkB expression in PV+ interneurons is required for these effects. Together, our results provide molecular and network mechanisms for the induction of critical period-like plasticity in adulthood.

Pubmed: 36944718