The small RNA regulatory molecules called microRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in the development of most organisms. The expression of many different miRNAs has been described in the developing and mature vertebrate retina. The ability of miRNAs to regulate a diversity of messenger RNA targets allows them to have effects on many different developmental processes, but the functions of only a few miRNAs have been documented to date. Developmental transitions between cell states appear to be particularly sensitive to miRNA loss of function, as evidenced by specific miRNA knockdowns or from global perturbations in miRNA levels (e.g., Dicer deletion). However, we are still in only the very early stages of understanding the range of cellular functions miRNAs control during development.