Shone V, Oulion S, Casane D, Laurenti P, Graham A (2016) Mode of reduction in the number of pharyngeal segments within the sarcopterygians. Zoological Lett 2: 6

We propose that the first three pharyngeal segments are homologous, as is the posterior limit of the pharynx, and that the loss of segments occurred between these two points. We suggest that this loss results from a curtailment of the posterior expansion of the pharyngeal endoderm in amniotes at relatively earlier time point, and thus the generation of fewer segments.

Pubmed: 27006783