The mammalian telencephalon is considered the most complex of all biological structures. It comprises a large number of functionally and morphologically distinct types of neurons that coordinately control most aspects of cognition and behavior. The subpallium, for example, not only gives rise to multiple neuronal types that form the basal ganglia and parts of the amygdala and septum but also is the origin of an astonishing diversity of cortical interneurons. Despite our detailed knowledge on the molecular, morphological, and physiological properties of most of these neuronal populations, the mechanisms underlying their generation are still poorly understood. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the expression patterns of several transcription factors in the ventricular zone of the developing subpallium in the mouse to generate a detailed molecular map of the different progenitor domains present in this region. Our study demonstrates that the ventricular zone of the mouse subpallium contains at least 18 domains that are uniquely defined by the combinatorial expression of several transcription factors. Furthermore, the results of microtransplantation experiments in vivo corroborate that anatomically defined regions of the mouse subpallium, such as the medial ganglionic eminence, can be subdivided into functionally distinct domains.